Export Processing Zones

Export Processing Zones (EPZ’s) are detrimental in a corporations decision to outsource in developing countries. For example in the Philippines the EPZ’s exist within a legal set of brackets that is exempt from any interference by the police and municipal government, in this case the EPZ’s become cordoned off in their own world and become hosts within their own countries. The whole idea of having Export Processing Zones within a country could be argued to stem from the neoliberalism ideology, as it is this ideology that stresses the importance of having international organisations such as the IMF and world bank and these institutions are avid supporters of having Foreign Direct investments in developing nations, however this whole system is flawed. To begin with companies such as Nike are lured into manufacturing in these countries because they often offer them a 5 year tax free incentive, the idea being that after 5 years Nike will begin to pay tax for the exports and the companies economy will steadily grow, however an interview with the Mayor of Rosario, Philippines and social activist Naomi Klein showed that this was not the case as he said that many companies ‘fold up before the tax holiday expires, then they incorporate to another company, just to avoid payment of taxes.”. Additionally the wages that Nike workers are paid in the EPZ’s does not even cover the cost of their daily allowances so the idea that the money the workers earn within the EPZ’s will be injected into the economy is deceitful, especially as the bid to win over the big multinational corporations become more and more competitive as it is the workers wage that is squeezed in a bid to cut their costs.

Wafaa Ashur


Qatar World Cup

Over 500 Indian migrants in Qatar have died as a result of building the infrastructure that will host the 2022 World Cup. Many Indians and Nepalese workers go to Gulf states in a bid to have a better life and make enough money to send remittances back home, however the reality proves otherwise, many of these workers will not even make it back home alive and are put to work in horrible working conditions as illustrated in the video. The Labour laws in place at the moment make it so that these poor migrants who go over to work in Qatar have practically no rights whatsoever, the Qatari labour code (kafala system) ensures that all the power is given to the employers and not the employees, because of this labour code employees in Qatar are able to confiscate their workers passports making sure that they cannot leave the country, pay salaries late or in some circumstances not at all, this is all working in the benefit of the rich to keep them in a position to continue being able to exploit workers and just ensuring the status quo.

Wafaa Ashur


Banking on Haitis Poor

Globalization refers to this growing sense of interconnectedness. It signifies the deepening enmeshment of societies in a web of worldwide flows of capital, goods, services, migrants and ideas which then brings about social and economic change or growth some of which Haiti as has not seen and given the devastation the earthquake caused Haiti’s situation went from bad to worse. However with this type of “rural banking” this can really alleviate some of the issues poor haitians have, these banks are able to provide loans that help fund small businesses and ensure that people are able to get back on their feet after losing many of their belongings and livelihoods in the earthquake. Not only has banks such as these allowed people to take out loans, it has also made it easier for people in these rural areas to receive money from family members and people abroad which many depend on. In this case the Haitians in these rural areas are the winners, these banks have allowed them to be eligible whereas if they were to use banks under a different system they would not making their lives a little bit easier after all they have been through.

Paloma-Nicole Dias Dos Santos


Gap Yah youth save the world.

Although this hilarious parody video is stereotypical of privileged gap year volunteers, it also holds some truth. Being blessed with the privilege to be able to take gap years and travel, volunteer tourists usually come from countries such as the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand and volunteer in developing countries in Africa and Asia. With the intention of serving those in need, volunteer tourists often assist in humanitarian and environmental projects. This new growing gap year/volunteer tourism phenomena has raised questions about the connection between volunteer tourists and neo-colonialism. Volunteer tourism has been attracting thousands young adults and offering them a cultural exchange experience from which they gain new personal skills. Volunteer tourism also helps young people with better employment chances in the future.
Sustainable development requires capacity and united efforts through people’s engagement.
Moreover, UN sees people as development actors ad not only recipients. For example, if it wasn’t for the millions of people who have involved themselves in various developmental projects voluntary, it is clear that none of the millennium development goals (MDGS) will be achieved. Even though it is important to note the importance of volunteers in development assistance, it has also raised concerns regarding its effectiveness, appropriateness and sustainability, particularly regarding the volunteers themselves.
“The use of volunteers, who often have little knowledge or experience of work they are undertaking, also calls into question their ineffectiveness and raises the specter of neo-colonialism in the tacit assumption that even ignorant Westerners can improve the lot of the people in the South.” Volunteer tourism organizations marketing their slogans such as ‘you are the difference’, ‘make a difference’, and ‘leave your mark on the world’ describe volunteer efforts as positive and achievable. This is a deceiving assumption about the complexities of development assistance. Moreover, the volunteer tourism industry has become commodified.

Some of the work that volunteer tourists do involves building homes or schools or engaging in conservation work within the local community, these are everyday simple jobs that anyone can do, including the locals. Studies have shown that volunteer tourism sometimes affects development of communities negativity, especially concerning how short the volunteer stays, their behavior, and how skilled they are. Moreover, volunteers usually pay a significant fee for the opportunity to participate in these volunteering programs, local communities would benefit greatly if the money was directly donated as it would pay a greater amount of labour. The labour hired would get more work done than one volunteer could. Volunteer tourist are able to experiment with their identity and get involved in different job roles with little or no attention paid to their skills and qualifications. Sometimes, they seem to hold self-interested motives. Moral arguments of whether gap year volunteering is principally motivated by altruism by egoistical motives have been raised. Privileged youth from developed countries might also be insensitive to different cultures and behave inappropriately local communities. Volunteering also gives them a hero complex, which is connected to neo-colonialist views that the faith of many developing countries or poor people depends on the help from Western volunteers and aid. Many volunteers are also unaware of the ways they might be indirectly exploiting local communities. Examples of this include environmental degradation through carbon footprint, and the psychological effects volunteers have on orphaned children when they leave. These children build an emotional attachment to volunteers and repeatedly feel abandoned with every leaving batch of volunteers.

While most volunteer tourists have good intentions, there has been criticism about the potential these tourists to lead to new forms of colonialist ideas and dependency. Studies found a number of volunteer tourism cases where experiences do not seem to encourage critical thinking about poverty and development, where foreign interests of volunteers are prioritized over local needs and where volunteer tourists and the organizations that offer volunteer tourism tend to receive more benefits than the locals.
In addition, it can lead to the potential exploitation of local communities and cultures. Volunteer tourists are the winners as they are provided with the opportunities to travel and ‘save the world.’

Balqis Hindash M00385581 Middlesex University Dubai Campus.


Africa is poor, there are too many children, and not enough food to go around and feed everybody. Africa needs saving and can only be saved through aid and volunteer effort. These are stereotypical myths that, shockingly, still represent Africa in today’s globalized world. It is true, poverty is still not completely eradicated and many developmental issues persist, however things are slowly changing. Globalization means interconnectedness and an exchange of ideas, beliefs and cultures on a global scale. I would not be able to listen to the heavy metal band from Angola if it wasn’t for globalization. However, the media is one of the most influential mediums that plays a big role in the way it represents certain subjects, sometimes showing them in only a negative light.
“The media give us ways of imagining particular identities and groups which can have material effects on how people experience the world, and how they get understood, or legislated for or perhaps beaten up in the street by others…this is partly because the mass media have the power to re-present, over and over, some identities, some imaginings, and to exclude others, and thereby make them seem unfamiliar or even threatening”.
Information passed on through the media is full of powerful cultural and ideological assumptions about what is ‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’ according to Western standards or views. The media is a very strong tool capable of fueling damaging stereotypes, stigma discrimination and even hatred towards places, people and groups. When you type African children into Google, you get search suggestions ranging from ‘poor’ to ‘hungry African kids’. Google also gives you the option to endlessly scroll down through the pictures of AIDS victims, poverty stricken, malnourished and sick children with flies around their faces. When these are the pictures representing Africa, they create the dominant stereotypical image that most people have of Africa and reinforce negative assumptions. Recently, news featured negative stories about corruption, dictators and rigged elections, resulting in a ‘what to do about Africa’ kind of theme. Besides civil wars, bad governance, corruption, and disease, the African continent has struggled for years against the colonial legacy, debt, exploitation by MNCs from Western powers.
My friends and family repeatedly warned me before going to Africa to stay safe and never go out by myself. This shows the preconceived perceptions people have about Africa. Negative stereotypes through the media are not reserved only for Africa, but applicable to Arabs, Asians, and other races as well. I got the same warnings from family and friends during my volunteer trip to the favelas in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is due to preconceived views of crime, drugs and poverty associated not just with Brazil, but South America in general. Same story visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia, the legacy of war still lives on 20 years later. Ironically, these were some of the most beautiful cities I have visited.
While visiting Ghana, I saw a beautiful side of Africa and experienced the warm nature, pride and hospitality of Ghanaian people. Children crawled into my lap, asked me to lift them up and walked with me holding my hand without hesitation. This kind of trust and unconditional love is something we have lost in the developed world where we are taught from a young age to never speak to strangers. Ghanaian culture is rich unique and diverse, as were Brazilian and Bosnian cultures. The way developing countries are represented in the media makes them the losers of globalization. We should learn to form our own perceptions based on research, look beyond what we are told by the media and learn to see beauty in our differences.
Balqis Hindash, Middlesex University Dubai Campus


Chernobyl: a men-made disaster

It was April 26th 1986 when the reactor n.4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded and gave rise to the most devastating accidents recorded in the history of nuclear energy. The amount of radioactive material released was massive, a toxic cloud heavily contaminated Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation and driven by atmospheric currents, arrived to all Europe, but with less extent.

The accident happened during an experiment that had to verify the safe operation of the reactor under conditions of momentary blackouts. During this simulation the violations of safety standards, a variety of human errors, a number of serious flaws in the structure of the reactor, caused extreme instability and two violent explosions: the building was literally rushed and uncovered tons of highly radioactive materials.

The explosion killed two employees and exposed 28 workers to lethal doses of radiation. In addition 106 people were hospitalized for many months. During the long clean-up process, a further 750,000 workers, were also exposed to varying doses of radiation over several years. On top of this, over 350,000 people were forced to leave their homes.

While there are no winners, in this case there are many losers: Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Europe, their peoples and last but not least the whole world because this was not only a Ukrainian problem, it is still a lasting issue not only for neighboring countries because it is affecting people lives not only through health and food but also through environmental changes.

The world wide impact of man-made disasters, such as Chernobyl as well as the most recent one in Fukushima in 2011, show that there are negative ecological effects from globalization and technology, they can fail and lead to disastrous consequences for nature and for man himself. The damages caused by this terrible accident, contaminated not only Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, but also Europe. The consequences of this contamination will extend for years. The incidence rate of cancer, leukemia, birth defects and other serious illnesses has increased in these areas and will be even higher in the coming years. These effects are also transmitted from generation to generation, and not only this contamination is a problem for human health, but also for that of animals, crops and lands.

Francesca Urso (Dubai Campus)


Powerful Russia

This video very well describes situation of Ukaine. People of Ukraine are still not happy with political situation of the country. They are still violent and trying to encourage revolution in the country.. Were that would lead Country and its people? I believe that only God knows… It might cause one more invasion of Russia, it might cause more deaths of people.. Or it might acctually encourage West to look in to whole Ukranian situTion in more serious way..
We all saw what was going on in Krymea and how easily Russia was allowed to bring their military.. How easily it started what contradicts all internationl laws.. In video we can see how people of Krymea are shouting that they in Russia.. That they are back in were they supposed to be.. That remindes me of soviet times and russian invasions in many Baltic countries.. However, the world is still just watching and not taking any actions. Does anyone wants to guess were further it will go? Because I am already lost in this Russian winning and West losing game…


Sisi yes! Sisi yes! Morsi no! Morsi no!

With over 12 thousand hits on YouTube and counting, this Egyptian woman has become the face of Sisi’s military regime. She has also become the face of the real “losers” in Egypt. The people who have become inconsistent in what they want out of a government, and the people who barely give the government a chance before blood is shed and people are killed.
Egypt was not handed to Morsi on a silver platter, immaculate in its policies, and perfect in its relations with the Egyptian people. In all honesty it was not handed to him at all. The Egyptian people voted him in! After a peaceful uprising that demonstrated to the West as well as the rest of the Eastern world how civilized Egypt and its people were we have been left this, more than 700 people dead.
700 deaths which could have been avoided if the Morsi government had been given a chance to change the Mubarak regime. A 30 year long regime is hard to destroy in just 3 years, which is why in my opinion the Egyptian people are the real “losers”. The losers because the government in which they voted was not able to reach its full term, as a democratic nation should, the losers because of who they have now put their trust in, a man who secretly forced his way to the top. And finally, the losers because of the sheer amount of children left homeless,fatherless or motherless because of this needless thirst for blood.
(Hafsah Butt)


How is it, being a female refugee in Jordan?

Coming back to Syrian refugees, there is another issue which should be really taken into consideration, the case in Jordan. The Jordanian government welcomed the refugees; it has opened Zaatari camp which is located near the Syrian border. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, due to the ongoing war in Syria, by the end of 2013 the number of refugees reached around one million. Even though, the refugees escaped the dangers in their homeland, their presence in Jordan is still making their lives challenging especially for women and girls.
There are several challenges that Syrian women are facing as refugees and all the challenges vary within and outside of the camp. For instance, there are concerns about domestic violence, sexual exploitation, forced marriages and prostitution of young Syrian Women. The situation has worsened; parents are selling their daughters to those who offer marriage, with the hope that they are doing the best for their daughter, so they are away from the refugee camp. However, in many cases those daughters have been used for a short-term pleasure marriages or prostitution.


According to many researchers, fears of sexual and gender-based violence became a crucial issue for Syrian women since arriving in Jordan. For instance, levels of intimate-partner violence have increased as well as sex-aid exchange and physical and emotional abuses. Similarly, as I mentioned before, the level of forced marriages among young Syrian girls aged 15-18 have dramatically increased; also there are many cases when girls have been married even before 15. This is how Syrian female refugees are treated in Jordan, and they are definitely losers. There is a short video which I found interesting, it clearly shows the lives of female refugees inside and outside of the camp.,d.Yms


Madina Orazakynova (Dubai Campus)


Philanthropy made easy.

There have been recent trends of growing online giving and donations to charities and NGOs . As seen in the video posted, something that started as a playful cancer awareness campaign went viral and resulted in £ 1 million pounds raised for over 215 cancer related charities. This shows the power of social media and online fundraising, benefitting charities and NGOs, making them the winners of globalisation.
Let’s look at JustGiving as an example. JustGiving is one of many online technology social enterprise businesses that made the whole process of fundraising easier and more secure. This online charity fundraising platform has raised 2.7 billion dollars for its 11,000 charity members around the world since it started. Giving donations online is more accountable and transparent as charity funds are protected and personal information is secured. As part of the application process, charities are asked to provide bank statements and original statements to prove the legitimacy. Background checks are run and charity credentials are checked to prevent money laundry. The responsibility of taking extra steps to ensure accountability and transparency gains the trust of fundraisers, donors and charities alike. In comparison, donations in the UAE are still collected in old school ways such as boxes placed in shopping malls making it difficult for people to know where their money actually goes or how it is being used.
Over the recent years, there has been a significant increase in online and crowd funding websites which are gaining popularity fast. Based on a study conducted on 115,000 charities in the US, shows that donations rose a 14 % ($ 2.1 billion) between 2012 and 2011. Contributions to charities also grew a 14 % ($ 785 million).
With access to internet becoming more mobile and the usage of social media increasing, charities are focusing on targeting young donors. I recently read an article about an 8 year old who managed to raise AED 10,000 for Operation Smile UAE. Fundraising has no age limit. Donations can be easily made with the click of a button from smart phones, this means that more and more people will donate. Studies also show that people tend to give bigger amounts when using their cards to give donations online. The 5 % cut that JustGiving profits from all donations done through them is invested back into the business. This way, JustGiving is constantly coming up with new and innovative ways to make the donation process easier and faster benefitting charities and NGOs.
All this is the result of globalisaion and the interconnectedness of the digital age. The internet also helped shine light on issues that might have stayed in the dark otherwise, the killing of Muslims in Burma for example. It has helped the youth organize revolutions and whistleblowers expose governments. I have signed countless Amnesty International online petitions about causes I thought were important. It is easier now more than ever for charities to connect to millions of supporters from all over the world and for causes to go viral organically with the help of shares and hashtags. Social media and the internet bring people together, connects them with the causes they are most passionate about and makes it easy for anyone to be an everyday hero.

Balqis Hindash (M00385581, MDX Dubai Campus)